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PostPosted: Sat Apr 30, 2005 8:14 am
 


MasterBlaster MasterBlaster:
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So in essense The USA also won the French and Indian war. And we attacked Montreal and Captured Quebec city. So the USA beat Canada. This is under the same theory that Candians use about the war 1812. So this should apply to the USA too.


Ok, *looks in History book* Seven Years war,(French/Indian war) Involved British, the French and Indians, not Americans, fighting for possesion of the NA continent. Ultimately the British won. U.S, which you say wasnt a country then, attack Montreal or capture Quebec City, I believe you are refering to the Revolutionary war where General George Washington(your idol) TRIED to capture Quebec City and FAILED in doing so. The Revolutionaries occupied Montreal briefly but unable to hold any gain there or elsewhere in Canada. Also here is a direct quote from you in another thread....

$1:
Canada did not burn down the White House! English troops that sailed from England did. Canada was not even a soveriegn country yet. Just like the USA did not win the French and Indian war we were not a country yet!

Either brush up on your History or dont spout complete crap and condradicting yourself just to make yourself look smart.

Btw, Canada didnt burn down the White house, Canadians did :wink: :wink:


OK Mister 2 dollar school You just proved my point I was saying this with 100% sarcasismand sinisism. Is it not ridicoulous to assume The USA won the French and Indian war. Its just as stupid to say Canda burnt down the White house. Its a fucking lie invented by Canadians to sooth their inferiority complex.

And by the way American colonist did fight in the French and Indian war.


First learn how to spell and speak English, second Yes it is ridiculous to assume the USA won the war because the USA wasnt a country, wasnt that you are bitching about Canada and the war of 1812? Canada didnt burn down the white house, Canadians did, get that through your F*Uck ass skull. Seems like you keep inventing stuff to sooth your own inferiority complex. You suck at history, leave it to the people who know events of time. God you must be some sort of bum not to know this common knowledge.


Canada was not a country until 1867. So you proved my point. The troops that sailed from ENGLAND stopped in Halifax to resupply, then sailed to Washington D.C. The war in Europe with Napoleaon was over so the troops were freed up to fight in N. America. So dont tell me about History. YOU DONT KNOW SHIT ABOUT THIS TOPIC. You only know what your stupid history teachers told you. You were foolish enough to beleieve them and not do your own research. Americans won the French and Indian war in accordance to your theory because Americans fought in the war.

OOOO by the way English teacher I bolded you mis-spelt words.


Last edited by ManifestDestiny on Sat Apr 30, 2005 9:04 am, edited 1 time in total.

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PostPosted: Sat Apr 30, 2005 8:23 am
 


MasterBlaster MasterBlaster:
NYCisHome NYCisHome:
So in essense The USA also won the French and Indian war. And we attacked Montreal and Captured Quebec city. So the USA beat Canada. This is under the same theory that Candians use about the war 1812. So this should apply to the USA too.


Ok, *looks in History book* Seven Years war,(French/Indian war) Involved British, the French and Indians, not Americans, fighting for possesion of the NA continent. Ultimately the British won. U.S, which you say wasnt a country then, attack Montreal or capture Quebec City, I believe you are refering to the Revolutionary war where General George Washington(your idol) TRIED to capture Quebec City and FAILED in doing so. The Revolutionaries occupied Montreal briefly but unable to hold any gain there or elsewhere in Canada. Also here is a direct quote from you in another thread....

$1:
Canada did not burn down the White House! English troops that sailed from England did. Canada was not even a soveriegn country yet. Just like the USA did not win the French and Indian war we were not a country yet!

Either brush up on your History or dont spout complete crap and condradicting yourself just to make yourself look smart.

Btw, Canada didnt burn down the White house, Canadians did :wink: :wink:


Makes me damn proud!!!!!


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PostPosted: Sat Apr 30, 2005 8:30 am
 


Oh, the White House burned burned burned
And we're the ones that did it
It burned burned burned
While the President ran and cried
The White House burned burned burned
And things were very historical
And the Americans ran and cried like a bunch of little babies
Wah wah wahhhh!
In the War of 1812.


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PostPosted: Sat Apr 30, 2005 8:33 am
 


The major turning point in the war was in Southern Ontario. I can't remember the name of it but it was 800 soldiers comprised of British, CANADIAN, French, Iroquois and other native groups. I read this in The Ottawa Citizen, wish I saved the article cuz it was pretty informative. Anyway, there was huge battle in Southern Ontario between the multicultural group of 800 soldiers mentioned above and 4000 American Fenians. We sent ya home crying. We got to Washington D.C. and gave ya a last chance, you guys didn't take it. So we burnt down your White House. And all the soldiers from different nations and tribes danced around saying: "Burn, Baby Burn!!!! Disco Inferno!!!!"


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PostPosted: Sat Apr 30, 2005 8:34 am
 


Arctic_Menace Arctic_Menace:
MasterBlaster MasterBlaster:
NYCisHome NYCisHome:
So in essense The USA also won the French and Indian war. And we attacked Montreal and Captured Quebec city. So the USA beat Canada. This is under the same theory that Candians use about the war 1812. So this should apply to the USA too.


Ok, *looks in History book* Seven Years war,(French/Indian war) Involved British, the French and Indians, not Americans, fighting for possesion of the NA continent. Ultimately the British won. U.S, which you say wasnt a country then, attack Montreal or capture Quebec City, I believe you are refering to the Revolutionary war where General George Washington(your idol) TRIED to capture Quebec City and FAILED in doing so. The Revolutionaries occupied Montreal briefly but unable to hold any gain there or elsewhere in Canada. Also here is a direct quote from you in another thread....

$1:
Canada did not burn down the White House! English troops that sailed from England did. Canada was not even a soveriegn country yet. Just like the USA did not win the French and Indian war we were not a country yet!

Either brush up on your History or dont spout complete crap and condradicting yourself just to make yourself look smart.

Btw, Canada didnt burn down the White house, Canadians did :wink: :wink:


Makes me damn proud!!!!!


YOU ARE PROVING MY POINT. I DONT BELEIEVE THE USA WON THE FRENCH AND INDIAN WAR. Just like Canada nor Canadians burn down the White House.


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PostPosted: Sat Apr 30, 2005 8:36 am
 


NYCisHome NYCisHome:
Arctic_Menace Arctic_Menace:
MasterBlaster MasterBlaster:
NYCisHome NYCisHome:
So in essense The USA also won the French and Indian war. And we attacked Montreal and Captured Quebec city. So the USA beat Canada. This is under the same theory that Candians use about the war 1812. So this should apply to the USA too.


Ok, *looks in History book* Seven Years war,(French/Indian war) Involved British, the French and Indians, not Americans, fighting for possesion of the NA continent. Ultimately the British won. U.S, which you say wasnt a country then, attack Montreal or capture Quebec City, I believe you are refering to the Revolutionary war where General George Washington(your idol) TRIED to capture Quebec City and FAILED in doing so. The Revolutionaries occupied Montreal briefly but unable to hold any gain there or elsewhere in Canada. Also here is a direct quote from you in another thread....

$1:
Canada did not burn down the White House! English troops that sailed from England did. Canada was not even a soveriegn country yet. Just like the USA did not win the French and Indian war we were not a country yet!

Either brush up on your History or dont spout complete crap and condradicting yourself just to make yourself look smart.

Btw, Canada didnt burn down the White house, Canadians did :wink: :wink:


Makes me damn proud!!!!!


YOU ARE PROVING MY POINT. I DONT BELEIEVE THE USA WON THE FRENCH AND INDIAN WAR. Just like Canada nor Canadians burn down the White House.


Just stay in your bubble and whimper, okay dude????? :wink: 8)


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PostPosted: Sat Apr 30, 2005 8:38 am
 


Arctic_Menace Arctic_Menace:
The major turning point in the war was in Southern Ontario. I can't remember the name of it but it was 800 soldiers comprised of British, CANADIAN, French, Iroquois and other native groups. I read this in The Ottawa Citizen, wish I saved the article cuz it was pretty informative. Anyway, there was huge battle in Southern Ontario between the multicultural group of 800 soldiers mentioned above and 4000 American Fenians. We sent ya home crying. We got to Washington D.C. and gave ya a last chance, you guys didn't take it. So we burnt down your White House. And all the soldiers from different nations and tribes danced around saying: "Burn, Baby Burn!!!! Disco Inferno!!!!"


All I have to say is the Battle of New Orleans.

In December of 1814 British forces under Major General Sir Edward Pakenham landed along the lower Mississippi River. At first they met with only minor resistance. The Americans, led by Major General Andrew Jackson, set up defensive positions at Chalmette, Louisiana, some five miles downriver from the city of New Orleans. The first British troops reached the American position on January 1, and in an exchange of artillery fire, the Americans held their ground. Packenham decided to wait for his entire force of over 10,000 men to assemble before launching an attack. On the 8th he ordered three large, direct assaults on the American positions, all of which were cut down by American fire. Packenham himself was mortally wounded in the third attack. The British had fought bravely but suffered defeat because ladders needed to scale the earthworks defended by the Americans were never brought forward to the soldiers. All the British infantry could do was to stand out in the open and be shot by the Americans behind defenses that the British could not assault. General John Lambert, who assumed command upon Pakenham's death, ordered the British withdrawal, having suffered a loss of some 700 dead and 2000 wounded or taken prisoner, while the Americans only had 13 dead with 58 wounded.

The battle, nonetheless, had historic consequences. It has been speculated that had the British been in control of the key port of New Orleans they would have attempted to use this to get additional concessions from the United States. The victory was celebrated with great enthusiasm in the United States and gave Andrew Jackson the reputation of a hero which later propelled him to the presidency.


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PostPosted: Sat Apr 30, 2005 8:39 am
 


Stay in your misinformed world


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PostPosted: Sat Apr 30, 2005 8:39 am
 


That relates to this thread how exactly??????


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PostPosted: Sat Apr 30, 2005 8:42 am
 


Arctic_Menace Arctic_Menace:
That relates to this thread how exactly??????



OOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOO THIS IS GREAT IT WAS THE LAST BATTLE OF THE WAR OF 1812. THE BATTLE OF NEW ORLEANS. YOU ARE SO IGNORANT. YOU HAD NO CLUE. IAM FUCKING LAUGHING SO HARD.


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PostPosted: Sat Apr 30, 2005 8:49 am
 


NYCisHome NYCisHome:
Arctic_Menace Arctic_Menace:
That relates to this thread how exactly??????



OOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOO THIS IS GREAT IT WAS THE LAST BATTLE OF THE WAR OF 1812. THE BATTLE OF NEW ORLEANS. YOU ARE SO IGNORANT. YOU HAD NO CLUE. IAM FUCKING LAUGHING SO HARD.


Wow, so your laughing at a Canadian teenager who didn't know about this battle but knew about all the other stuff???? Wow, I'm laughing at the fact that your celebrating a victory over a 16 year old. Not something to be proud of my friend. :lol:


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PostPosted: Sat Apr 30, 2005 8:53 am
 


Arctic_Menace Arctic_Menace:
NYCisHome NYCisHome:
Arctic_Menace Arctic_Menace:
That relates to this thread how exactly??????



OOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOO THIS IS GREAT IT WAS THE LAST BATTLE OF THE WAR OF 1812. THE BATTLE OF NEW ORLEANS. YOU ARE SO IGNORANT. YOU HAD NO CLUE. IAM FUCKING LAUGHING SO HARD.


Wow, so your laughing at a Canadian teenager who didn't know about this battle but knew about all the other stuff???? Wow, I'm laughing at the fact that your celebrating a victory over a 16 year old. Not something to be proud of my friend. :lol:


I am still laughing. Piece of advice do your research before you attack people. And what other stuff did you know ? nothing that was not told to you. RESEARCH!!!! In other words dont write a check your but cant cash!


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PostPosted: Sat Apr 30, 2005 9:14 am
 


NYCisHome NYCisHome:
Arctic_Menace Arctic_Menace:
NYCisHome NYCisHome:
Arctic_Menace Arctic_Menace:
That relates to this thread how exactly??????



OOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOO THIS IS GREAT IT WAS THE LAST BATTLE OF THE WAR OF 1812. THE BATTLE OF NEW ORLEANS. YOU ARE SO IGNORANT. YOU HAD NO CLUE. IAM FUCKING LAUGHING SO HARD.


Wow, so your laughing at a Canadian teenager who didn't know about this battle but knew about all the other stuff???? Wow, I'm laughing at the fact that your celebrating a victory over a 16 year old. Not something to be proud of my friend. :lol:


I am still laughing. Piece of advice do your research before you attack people. And what other stuff did you know ? nothing that was not told to you. RESEARCH!!!! In other words dont write a check your but cant cash!


OH MAN!!!! NOW I AM LAUGHING MY ASS OFF!!!!! YOU ARE SUCH A HYPOCRITE!!!!! OH MAN, I'M NOT GONNA BOTHER REPLYING TO YOUR HYPOCRITICAL ASS ANYMORE CUZ I'LL BUST A GUT FROM LAUGHING. YOUR A SAD MAN!!!!!! HAHAHA!!!!! OH GOD, TELL ME SOMETHING SAD BEFORE YOU SAY SOMETHING REALLY STUPID TO MAKE ME LAUGH EVEN MORE!!!! HAHA, YOU ASRE SUCH A HYPOCRITE. YOU TELL ME "DO YOUR RESEARCH", YOU DON'T EVEN REALLY DO YOURS!!!! MAN, MASTER BLASTER SCHOOLED YOU, AND YOUR STILL CELEBRATING BEATING A 16 YEAR OLD!!!!!! DUDE, REALLY, GET OUT OF THE HOUSE MORE!!!!! OH MAN, I NEED SOME FRESH AIR TO CALM ME DOWN!!!! HAHAHAHAHAHA!!!!!! SUCH A HYPOCRITE!!!!!HAHAHA!!!
LIKE THE SAYING GOES, HO HO HO, WHO'S GOT THE LAST LAUGH NOW???? THAT WOULD BE ME. HAHA!!!!!!! SUCH A HYPOCRITE!!!!!! I'LLL BE BACK WHEN I STOP LAUGHING. :wink: :lol: :lol: :lol: :lol: :lol: :lol:


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PostPosted: Sat Apr 30, 2005 9:22 am
 


Just have to look at all of these past posts and see who schooled who. Master blaster claimed the UK was still at war with Napolean when they were not. But in your eyes he schooled me. He does not even know his history (JUST LIKE YOU) so please stop trying to hide your own stupidity.

Also refer to Sir Winston Churchills quote at the bottom (I hope you know who he is?)


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PostPosted: Sat Apr 30, 2005 10:06 am
 


The War of 1812 was fought between the United States and Great Britain from June 1812 to the spring of 1815, although the peace treaty ending the war was signed in Europe in December 1814. The main land fighting of the war occurred along the Canadian border, in the Chesapeake Bay region, and along the Gulf of Mexico; extensive action also took place at sea.

Background

From the end of the American Revolution in 1783, the United States had been irritated by the failure of the British to withdraw from American territory along the Great Lakes; their backing of the Indians on America's frontiers; and their unwillingness to sign commercial agreements favorable to the United States.

American resentment grew during the French Revolutionary Wars (1792-1802) and the Napoleonic Wars (1803-15), in which Britain and France were the main combatants.

In time, France came to dominate much of the continent of Europe, while Britain remained supreme on the seas. The two powers also fought each other commercially: Britain attempted to blockade the continent of Europe, and France tried to prevent the sale of British goods in French possessions. During the 1790s, French and British maritime policies produced several crises with the United States, but after 1803 the difficulties became much more serious. The British Orders in Council of 1807 tried to channel all neutral trade to continental Europe through Great Britain, and France's Berlin and Milan decrees of 1806 and 1807 declared Britain in a state of blockade and condemned neutral shipping that obeyed British regulations (see CONTINENTAL SYSTEM). The United States believed its rights on the seas as a neutral were being violated by both nations, but British maritime policies were resented more because Britain dominated the seas. Also, the British claimed the right to take from American merchant ships any British sailors who were serving on them. Frequently, they also took Americans. This practice of impressment became a major grievance.

The United States at first attempted to change the policies of the European powers by economic means. In 1807, after the British ship Leopard fired on the American frigate CHESAPEAKE, President Thomas Jefferson urged and Congress passed an EMBARGO ACT banning all American ships from foreign trade. The embargo failed to change British and French policies but devastated New England shipping. Later and weaker economic measures were also unsuccessful.

Failing in peaceful efforts and facing an economic depression, some Americansbegan to argue for a declaration of war to redeem the national honor. The Congress that was elected in 1810 and met in November 1811 included a group known as the War Hawks who demanded war against Great Britain. These men were all Democratic-Republicans and mostly from the West and South. Among their leaders were John C. Calhoun of South Carolina, Henry Clay of Kentucky, and Felix Grundy of Tennessee. They argued that American honor could be saved and British policies changed by an invasion of Canada. The FEDERALIST PARTY, representing New England shippers who foresaw the ruination of their trade, opposed war.

Napoleon's announcement in 1810 of the revocation of his decrees was followed by British refusals to repeal their orders, and pressures for war increased. On June 18, 1812, President James MADISON signed a declaration of war that Congress--with substantial opposition--had passed at his request. Unknown to Americans, Britain had finally, two days earlier, announced that it would revoke its orders.

Campaigns of 1812-13

U.S. forces were not ready for war, and American hopes of conquering Canada collapsed in the campaigns of 1812 and 1813. The initial plan called for a three-pronged offensive: from Lake Champlain to Montreal; across the Niagara frontier; and into Upper Canada from Detroit. The attacks were uncoordinated, however, and all failed. In the West, Gen. William HULL surrendered Detroit to the British in August 1812; on the Niagara front, American troops lost the Battle of Queenston Heights in October; and along Lake Champlain the American forces withdrew in late November without seriously engaging the enemy.

American frigates won a series of single-ship engagements with British frigates, and American privateers continually harried British shipping. The captains and crew of the frigates CONSTITUTION and United States became renowned throughout America. Meanwhile, the British gradually tightened a blockade around America's coasts, ruining American trade, threatening American finances, and exposing the entire coastline to British attack.

American attempts to invade Canada in 1813 were again mostly unsuccessful. There was a standoff at Niagara, and an elaborate attempt to attack Montreal by a combined operation involving one force advancing along Lake Champlain and another sailing down the Saint Lawrence River from Lake Ontario failed at the end of the year. The only success was in the West. The Americans won control of the Detroit frontier region when Oliver Hazard PERRY's ships destroyed the British fleet on Lake Erie (Sept. 10, 1813). This victory forced the British to retreat eastward from the Detroit region, and on Oct. 5, 1813, they were overtaken and defeated at the battle of the Thames (Moraviantown) by an American army under the command of Gen. William Henry HARRISON. In this battle the great Shawnee chief TECUMSEH, who had harassed the northwestern frontier since 1811, was killed while fighting on the British side.

Campaigns of 1814

In 1814 the United States faced complete defeat, because the British, having defeated Napoleon, began to transfer large numbers of ships and experienced troops to America. The British planned to attack the United States in three main areas: in New York along Lake Champlain and the Hudson River in order to sever New England from the union; at New Orleans to block the Mississippi; and in Chesapeake Bay as a diversionary maneuver. The British then hoped to obtain major territorial concessions in a peace treaty. The situation was particularly serious for the United States because the country was insolvent by the fall of 1814, and in New England opponents of the war were discussing separation from the Union. The HARTFORD CONVENTION that met in Connecticut in December 1814 and January 1815 stopped short of such an extreme step but suggested a number of constitutional amendments to restrict federal power.

The British appeared near success in the late summer of 1814. American resistance to the diversionary attack in Chesapeake Bay was so weak that the British, after winning the Battle of Bladensburg (August 24), marched into Washington, D.C., and burned most of the public buildings. President Madison had to flee into the countryside. The British then turned to attack Baltimore but met stiffer resistance and were forced to retire after the American defense of FORT MCHENRY, which inspired Francis Scott KEY to write the words of the "Star-Spangled Banner."

In the north, about 10,000 British veterans advanced into the United States from Montreal. Only a weak American force stood between them and New York City, but on Sept. 11, 1814, American Capt. Thomas MACDONOUGH won the naval battle of Lake Champlain (Plattsburg Bay), destroying the British fleet. Fearing the possibility of a severed line of communications, the British army retreated into Canada.

Peace Treaty and the Battle of New Orleans

In late 1814 New Orleans was home to a population of French, Spanish, African, Anglo and Creole peoples dedicated to pursuing economic opportunism and the joys of life. It also occupied a strategic place on the map. Located just 100 miles upstream from the mouth of the Mississippi River, the Crescent City offered a tempting prize to a British military still buoyant over the burning of Washington, D.C. To capture the city, Admiral Sir Alexander Cochrane fitted out a naval flotilla of more than 50 ships to transport 10,000 veteran troops from Jamaica. They were led by Sir Edward Pakenham, the 37-year-old brother-in-law of the Duke of Wellington and a much-decorated general officer.

For protection, the citizens of southern Louisiana looked to Major General Andrew Jackson, known to his men as "Old Hickory." Jackson arrived in new Orleans in the late fall of 1814 and quickly prepared defenses along the city's many avenues of approach.

Meanwhile, the British armada scattered a makeshift American fleet in Lake Borgne, a shallow arm of the Gulf of Mexico east of New Orleans, and evaluated their options. Two British officers, disguised as Spanish fishermen, discovered an unguarded waterway, Bayou Bienvenue, that provided access to the east bank of the Mississippi River barely nine miles downstream from New Orleans. On December 23 the British vanguard poled its way through a maze of sluggish streams and traversed marshy land to emerge unchallenged an easy day's march from their goal.

Two American officers, whose plantations had been commandeered by the British, informed Jackson that the enemy was at the gates. "Gentlemen, the British are below, we must fight them tonight," the general declared. He quickly launched a nighttime surprise attack that, although tactically a draw, gained valuable time for the outnumbered Americans. Startled by their opponents' boldness, the British decided to defer their advance toward New Orleans until all their troops could be brought in from the fleet.

Old Hickory used this time well. He retreated three miles to the Chalmette Plantation on the banks of the Rodriguez Canal, a wide, dry ditch that marked the narrowest strip of solid land between the British camps and New Orleans. Here Jackson built a fortified mud rampart, 3/5 mile long and anchored on its right by the Mississippi River and on the left by an impassable cypress swamp.

While the Americans dug in, General Pakenham readied his attack plans. On December 28 the British launched a strong advance that Jackson repulsed with the help of the Louisiana, an American ship that blasted the British left flank with broadsides from the river. Four days later Pakenham tried to bombard the Americans into submission with an artillery barrage, but Jackson's gunners stood their ground.

The arrival of fresh troops during the first week of January 1815 gave the British new hope. Pakenham decided to cross the Mississippi downstream with a strong force and overwhelm Jackson's thin line of defenders on the river bank opposite the Rodriguez Canal. Once these redcoats were in position to pour flank fire across the river, heavy columns would assault each flank of the American line, then pursue the insolent defenders six miles into the heart of New Orleans. Units carrying fascines -- bundled sticks used to construct fortifications -- and ladders to bridge the ditch and scale the ramparts would precede the attack, which would begin at dawn January 8 to take advantage of the early morning fog.

It was a solid plan in conception, but flawed in execution. The force on the west bank was delayed crossing the river and did not reach its goal until well after dawn. Deprived of their misty cover, the main British columns had no choice but to advance across the open fields toward the Americans, who waited expectantly behind their mud and cotton-bale barricades. To make matters worse, the British forgot their ladders and fascines, so they had no easy means to close with the protected Americans.

Never has a more polyglot army fought under the Stars and Stripes than did Jackson's force at the Battle of New Orleans. In addition to his regular U.S. Army units, Jackson counted on dandy New Orleans militia, a sizable contingent of black former Haitian slaves fighting as free men of color, Kentucky and Tennessee frontiersmen armed with deadly long rifles and a colorful band of Jean Lafitte's outlaws, whose men Jackson had once disdained as "hellish banditti." This hodgepodge of 4,000 soldiers, crammed behind narrow fortifications, faced more than twice their number.

Pakenham's assault was doomed from the beginning. His men made perfect targets as they marched precisely across a quarter mile of open ground. Hardened veterans of the Peninsular Campaign in Spain fell by the score, including nearly 80 percent of a splendid Scottish Highlander unit that tried to march obliquely across the American front. Both of Pakenham's senior generals were shot early in the battle, and the commander himself suffered two wounds before a shell severed an artery in his leg, killing him in minutes. His successor wisely disobeyed Pakenham's dying instructions to continue the attack and pulled the British survivors off the field. More than 2,000 British had been killed or wounded and several hundred more were captured. The American loss was eight killed and 13 wounded.

Jackson's victory had saved New Orleans, but it came after the war was over. The Treaty of Ghent, which ended the War of 1812 but resolved none of the issues that started it, had been signed in Europe weeks before the action on the Chalmette Plantation.


infromation obtained from
Berton, Pierre, Flames across the Border (1981; repr. 1988) and The Invasion of Canada (1980; repr. 1988); Caffrey, Kate, The Twilight's Last Gleaming: The British against America 1812-1815 (1977); Coles, Harry L., The War of 1812 (1965); Horsman, Reginald, The War of 1812 (1969); Mahon, John K., The War of 1812 (1972); Tucker, Glenn, Poltroons and Patriots: A Popular Account of the War of 1812, 2 vols. (1954).

Taliesin


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